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润滑油的作用有哪些?

来源:https://www.smxnykj.com/ 发布时间:日期:2022-11-16
以发动机为例,说明润滑油的作用
Take the engine as an example to illustrate the role of lubricating oil
1、润滑作用
1. Lubrication
发动机在运转时,如果一些摩擦部位得不到适当的润滑,就会产生干摩擦。实践证明,干摩擦在短时间内产生的热量足以使金属熔化,造成机件的损坏甚至卡死(许多漏水或漏油的汽车出现拉缸、抱轴等故障,主要原因就在于此)。因此对发动机中的摩擦部位给予良好的润滑。当润滑油流到摩擦部位后,就会粘附在摩擦表面上形成一层油膜,减少摩擦机件之间的阻力,而油膜的强度和韧性是发挥其润滑作用的关键。
When the engine is running, dry friction will occur if some friction parts are not properly lubricated. Practice has proved that the heat generated by dry friction in a short period of time is enough to melt the metal, causing damage or even seizure of the parts (this is the main reason why many cars with water leakage or oil leakage have cylinder pulling, axle holding and other failures). Therefore, the friction parts in the engine shall be well lubricated. When the lubricating oil flows to the friction part, it will adhere to the friction surface to form an oil film, reducing the resistance between friction parts. The strength and toughness of the oil film is the key to play its role in lubrication.
2、冷却作用
2. Cooling action
燃料在发动机内燃烧后产生的热量,只有一小部分用于动力输出以及摩擦阻力消耗和辅助机构的驱动上;其余大部分热量除随废气排到大气中外,还会被发动机中的冷却介质带走一部分。发动机中多余的热排出机体,否则发动机会由于温度过高而烧坏。这一方面靠发动机冷却系来完成,另一方面靠润滑油从气缸、活塞、曲轴等表面吸收热量后带到油底壳中散发。
Only a small part of the heat generated by fuel combustion in the engine is used for power output, friction resistance consumption and drive of auxiliary mechanism; Most of the remaining heat will be taken away by the cooling medium in the engine in addition to being discharged into the atmosphere with the exhaust gas. Excess heat in the engine is discharged from the engine body, otherwise the engine will burn out due to excessive temperature. On the one hand, this is accomplished by the engine cooling system, and on the other hand, the lubricating oil absorbs heat from the surfaces of cylinders, pistons, crankshafts, etc. and then takes it to the oil pan for emission.
3、洗涤作用
3. Washing action
发动机工作中,会产生许多污物。如吸入空气中带来的砂土、灰尘,混合气燃烧后形成的积炭,润滑油 润滑油氧化后生成的胶状物,机件间摩擦产生金属屑等等。这些污物会附着在机件的摩擦表面上,如不清洗下来,就会加大机件的磨损。另外,大量的胶质会使活塞环粘结卡滞,导致发动机不能正常运转。因此,及时将这些污物清理,这个清洗过程是靠润滑油在机体内循环流动来完成的。
The engine will produce a lot of dirt during operation. For example, sand and dust brought by inhalation of air, carbon deposit formed after combustion of mixed gas, colloidal substances generated after oxidation of lubricating oil and lubricating oil, metal chips generated by friction between parts, etc. These dirt will adhere to the friction surface of the machine parts. If they are not cleaned, they will increase the wear of the machine parts. In addition, a large amount of gum will cause the piston ring to stick and cause the engine to not operate normally. Therefore, the dirt shall be cleaned in time. This cleaning process is completed by circulating lubricating oil in the body.
4、密封作用
4. Sealing effect
发动机的气缸与活塞、活塞环与环槽以及气门与气门座间均存在一定间隙,这样能保证各运动副之间不会卡滞。但这些间隙可造成气缸密封不好,燃烧室漏气结果是降低气缸压力及发动机输出功率。润滑油在这些间隙中形成的油膜,保证了气缸的密封性,保持气缸压力及发动机输出功率,并能阻止废气向下窜入曲轴箱。
There are certain clearances between the cylinder and piston, piston ring and ring groove, and between the valve and valve seat of the engine, so as to ensure that there is no jamming between the motion pairs. However, these clearances can cause poor cylinder sealing, and the result of combustion chamber leakage is to reduce cylinder pressure and engine output power. The oil film formed by the lubricating oil in these gaps ensures the tightness of the cylinder, maintains the cylinder pressure and engine output power, and prevents the exhaust gas from flowing downward into the crankcase.
5、防锈作用
5. Antirust effect
发动机在运转或存放时,大气、润滑油、燃油中的水分以及燃烧产生的酸性气体,会对机件造成腐蚀和锈蚀,从而加大摩擦面的损坏。润滑油在机件表面形成的油膜,可以避免机件与水及酸性气体直接接触,防止产生腐蚀、锈蚀。
When the engine is running or stored, the moisture in the atmosphere, lubricating oil, fuel and the acid gas generated by combustion will cause corrosion and rust to the parts, thus increasing the damage to the friction surface. The oil film formed by lubricating oil on the surface of the parts can prevent the parts from directly contacting with water and acid gas, and prevent corrosion and rust.
6、除去冲击载荷
6. Remove impact load
在压缩行程结束时,混合气开始燃烧,气缸压力急剧上升。这时,轴承间隙中的润滑油将缓和活塞、活塞销、连杆、曲轴等机件所受到的冲击载荷,使发动机平稳工作,并防止金属直接接触,减少磨损。
At the end of the compression stroke, the mixture starts to burn and the cylinder pressure rises sharply. At this time, the lubricating oil in the bearing clearance will ease the impact load on the piston, piston pin, connecting rod, crankshaft and other parts, so that the engine can work stably, and prevent the metal from contacting directly to reduce wear.
以上就是为大家介绍的有关济南润滑油厂家的详细的介绍,希望对您有所帮助.如果您有什么疑问的话,欢迎联系我们.我们将以的态度,为您提供服务https://www.smxnykj.com/
The above is a detailed introduction of Jinan lubricating oil manufacturers. I hope it will be helpful to you. If you have any questions, please contact us. We will provide you with our attitude https://www.smxnykj.com/

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